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Just when the Middle Ages couldn’t get worse, everyone had bunions

In a unique study, researchers have determined how many people in medieval England had bunionsA fashion trend towards pointed toe shoes made the affliction common. Even monks got in on the trend, much to their discomfort later in life.Late Medieval England had its share of problems. The Wars of Roses raged, the Black Death killed off large parts of the population, and passing ruffians could say "Ni" at will to old ladies .To make matters worse, a first of its kind study published in the Inte...
Tags: Health, Fashion, England, History, Innovation, Cambridge, John, St John, All Saints, Krakow Poland, International Journal of Paleopathology, Copyright Cambridge Archaeological Unit


Pupil size surprisingly linked to differences in intelligence

Researchers find a correlation between pupil size and differences in cognitive ability.The larger the pupil, the higher the intelligence.The explanation for why this happens lies within the brain, but more research is needed.What can you tell by looking into someone's eyes? You can spot a glint of humor, signs of tiredness, or maybe that they don't like something or someone. But outside of assessing an emotional state, a person's eyes may also provide clues about their intelligence, suggests new...
Tags: Psychology, Atlanta, Intelligence, Brain, Innovation, Mind, Iq, Emotional Intelligence, Georgia Institute of Technology, Tsukahara, Jason Tsukahara


Why does life flash before your eyes in a life-threatening scenario?

At the age of 16, when Tony Kofi was an apprentice builder living in Nottingham, he fell from the third story of a building. Time seemed to slow down massively, and he saw a complex series of images flash before his eyes. As he described it, “In my mind's eye I saw many, many things: children that I hadn't even had yet, friends that I had never seen but are now my friends. The thing that really stuck in my mind was playing an instrument". Then Tony landed on his head and lost consciousness. When...
Tags: Psychology, Death, UK, London, Time, Memory, Brain, Innovation, Nottingham, Mind, Einstein, Steve Taylor, Tony, Immanuel Kant, Gill Hicks, Carlo Rovelli


Is healthy sugar possible — and would you eat it?

Consumers are fed a lot of nonsense about sugar and fad diets.Our bodies must consume sugar; the question is how much and in what form.Companies are trying to develop healthier sugars to combat our "sugar addiction." Can we hack sugar to be healthy? www.youtube.com Humans consume too much sugar. This is a refrain you've likely read for years, if not decades. As with any generality, that topline assessment misses nuance. While certainly t...
Tags: Health, Europe, Nutrition, America, Harvard, Engineering, Innovation, Who, Addiction, Fda, Illness, Coke, Nestle, Derek, RDA, Stevia


The power of authority: how easily we do what we’re told

In the 1960s, Stanley Milgram was sure that good, law-abiding Americans would never be able to follow orders like the Germans in the Holocaust.His experiments proved him spectacularly wrong. They showed just how many of us are willing to do evil if only we're told to by an authority figure.Yet, parts of the experiment were set up in such a way that we should perhaps conclude something a bit more nuanced. Holding a clipboard and wearing a lab coat makes you a very powerful person. Add in a lany...
Tags: Psychology, Evil, Ocean, Innovation, Oxford, Phillip Zimbardo, Adolf Eichmann, Stanley Milgram, Milgram, Asch, Stockphotos, Jonny Thomson


Could flickering lights fight Alzheimer's? Early research looks promising

For the past few years, Annabelle Singer and her collaborators have been using flickering lights and sound to treat mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, and they've seen some dramatic results.Now they have results from the first human feasibility study of the flicker treatment, and they're promising."We looked at safety, tolerance, and adherence, and several different biological outcomes, and the results were excellent—better than we expected," says Singer, assistant professor in the biomedical ...
Tags: Health, Medicine, Georgia, Brain, Medical Research, Innovation, Emory, Wright, Georgia Institute of Technology, Alzheimer, Lah, Human body, Annabelle Singer, Emory University Singer, American Neurological Association, James Lah


The power of group identity: 22 percent of Americans remain skeptical of vaccines

New research found that 22 percent of Americans identify as somewhat or fully resistant to vaccination. Researchers used two social psychology theories to explore the causes of vaccine resistance.The more one identifies with an anti-vaccine group, the harder it is to dissuade them from their ideas.Vaccine hesitancy is top of mind for global public health officials, and the reasons for this resistance are manifold. A group of American researchers recently focused on social identity as a motivati...
Tags: Psychology, Public Health, Sociology, Innovation, Vaccination, Derek, Afp, Oklahoma State University, State House, Concord New Hampshire, Henri Tajfel, John Turner, SCT, Joseph Prezioso, COVID-19, Matt Motta


How a rubber hand could treat OCD

It is easy to trick your brain into believing that a rubber hand belongs to your body.OCD is a crippling condition afflicting 1 in 50 people.The "rubber hand illusion" could offer a novel strategy to treat this condition. I feel anchored "here and now" in my body. But this sense of embodiment which we take for granted is an illusion created by the brain. In fact, in just five minutes, I can make you feel like a rubber hand is yours!I simply ask you to place both your hands flat on a table in b...
Tags: Psychology, Japan, Mental Health, Harvard, Harvard University, Innovation, Cambridge University, McLean Hospital, Ramachandran, Harvard University Department of Psychology, Baland S Jalal, Cambridge University Department of Psychiatry He, Ramachandran D Krishnakumar


Consciousness: The 'ghost in the machine', or nothing special?

As individuals, we feel that we know what consciousness is because we experience it daily. It's that intimate sense of personal awareness we carry around with us, and the accompanying feeling of ownership and control over our thoughts, emotions and memories.But science has not yet reached a consensus on the nature of consciousness – which has important implications for our belief in free will and our approach to the study of the human mind. Beliefs about consciousness can be roughly divided int...
Tags: Psychology, Neuroscience, Mit, Brain, Innovation, Consciousness, Mind, Cardiff University, Alex Byrne, Peter Halligan Hon, David A Oakley


Scientists can induce out-of-body experiences without drugs

This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink.Feeling centered and in control of your body is a part of being human that we take for granted in our daily lives. But for millions of people suffering from post-traumatic stress, epilepsy, or another neuropsychiatric condition, this sense of self can slip out their hands in moments of "dissociation."These dissociated states, which are often described as out-of-body experiences, are not inherently harmful in themselves, but they...
Tags: Psychology, Medicine, Mental Health, Innovation, Stanford University, Karl Deisseroth, Deisseroth


Falsely accused? Stay calm, because anger makes you look guilty

A new study conducted various experiments to explore the relationship between anger and judgments of guilt.The results suggest that when an accused person becomes angry, perceivers are more likely to view that person as guilty, even though the accused might be innocent.Paradoxically, the study also found that people who are falsely accused generally become angrier than people who are rightfully accused.Imagine your neighbor accuses you of stealing something. You didn't. But your neighbor doesn...
Tags: Psychology, Relationships, Innovation, Emotions, Smith, Justice System, Andrew Smith, Nathan


Caffeine isn't actually going to help you combat sleep deprivation

Relying on caffeine to get you through the day isn't always the answer, according to a new study.The researchers assessed how effective caffeine was in counteracting the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognition. As it turns out, caffeine can only get you so far.The study in the most recent edition of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition assessed the impact of caffeine after a night of sleep deprivation.More than 275 participants were asked to complete a sim...
Tags: Health, Food, Sleep, Brain, Mood, United States, Innovation, Michigan State, Michigan State University, Fenn, Kimberly Fenn


Brain study strengthens link between lithium and suicide

Lithium appears essential to brain activity, but how it works remains a mystery. A team of researchers analyzed where in the brain lithium tends to accumulate in two healthy controls and one suicide victim.The healthy controls had more lithium in their white matter than gray matter.Lithium is known to students of chemistry as the lightest solid element, to electronics enthusiasts as a fine material to make a battery out of, and to millions of others as an effective medication. It was initially ...
Tags: Medicine, Mental Health, Brain, Depression, Innovation, Coca Cola, Jutta Schöpfer


Sleep paralysis: a terrifying encounter with our own mind

Sleep paralysis, which 20 percent of people experience at least once, can be terrifying.Though it is a neurological phenomenon, our culture and beliefs can make the experience worse.One potential treatment is to learn to control the content of our dreams. Imagine waking up in the middle of pitch darkness, only to realize you are completely paralyzed. You suddenly notice out of nowhere, an aggressive and horrendous human-like cat is on your bed. Next, the worst-case scenario unfolds: The creatu...
Tags: Psychology, Hollywood, Sleep, Wikipedia, Stephen King, Harvard, Egypt, Harvard University, Italy, Innovation, San Diego, Denmark, Johnny Depp, Cambridge University, Nancy, Danes


Studies likely to be wrong have 153 more citations

Science is facing a replication crisis, namely, that many studies published in top journals fail to replicate. A new study examined the citation count of "failed" studies, finding that these nonreplicable studies accumulated 153 more citations than more reliable research, even after they are shown to be nonreplicable.The study suggests the replication crisis might be driven, in part, by incentives that encourage researchers to generate "interesting" results.What's one way to get a quick boost o...
Tags: Psychology, Google, Science, Economics, Sociology, Innovation, Kieron Bryan, Stuart Richie, Nature Science, Serra Garcia


Havana syndrome: How a “directed-energy” weapon may be injuring American intelligence operatives

In recent history, the first reports of a potential directed-energy attack on U.S. personnel came in 2016 from American diplomats working in Cuba.There's no "smoking gun" evidence of who's behind the attacks, but some U.S. officials suspect the Russians.Supporting that claim is the history of the so-called Moscow Signal, an event in which the Soviets blasted microwaves at the U.S. embassy in Moscow from 1953 to 1976.Since 2016, more than 130 U.S. government personnel have suffered symptoms linke...
Tags: Health, Technology, Washington, White House, Politico, Russia, Joe Biden, War, Physics, United States, New York Times, Innovation, Moscow, Violence, Gru, Cia


A brief history of the internet's 3000 emojis

2020 saw the release of 117 new emojis including the bubble tea, the placard and the transgender flag, growing the number of the popular pictograms to 3,136. Already, 217 new emojis have been announced for release in 2021, which will up the number to 3,353. Users can look forward to start sending emojis like the flaming heart, a bearded woman and interracial couples later in the year. What emojis appear on people's phones and on their social media platforms is not arbitrary but has been coordi...
Tags: Psychology, Facebook, Japan, Internet, Communication, History, Culture, Facebook Messenger, Innovation, Unicode, Unicode Consortium, Shigetaka Kurita


Single dose of psilocybin may treat migraines

Migraines afflict more than ten percent of the U.S. population, yet treatments are often unreliable and there is no cure. The new study involves giving migraine sufferers a placebo and, two weeks later, a single dose of pure synthetic psilocybin.The results showed that participants reported significantly fewer migraines in the two weeks after the study.Psychedelics research is enjoying a renaissance. In recent years, studies have shown that hallucinogenic drugs like LSD, psilocybin, and MDMA see...
Tags: Health, Medicine, Drugs, Brain, Medical Research, Innovation, Heather, Neurotherapeutics


New AI-based theory explains your weird dreams

A new paper suggests that dreaming helps us generalize our experiences so that we can adapt to new circumstances. Therefore, the strangeness of dreams is what makes them useful.This idea is supported by some data, though new experiments could help confirm it.Lots of animals dream, but nobody is quite sure why. Researchers are divided over if dreaming is a mere side effect of other brain functions or if it serves its own purpose.A number of theories attempting to explain dreaming exist. These in...
Tags: Psychology, Sleep, Brain, Innovation, Ai, Mind, Hoel, Erik Hoel


Francis Bacon and the four barriers to truth

The human mind is designed to experience the world a certain way, and so it leads us to biases, prejudices, and heuristics.Francis Bacon, the father of the scientific method, identified four of the most common of these, 400 years before our modern idea of "cognitive biases."If we are serious about finding truth, we ought to minimize these biases and use logic, science, and reason as much as possible. You are not objective.We bring all of ourselves to every moment of every day — our experiences...
Tags: Psychology, Innovation, Oxford, Philosophy, Francis Bacon, Marx, Jonny Thomson, ERNESTO BENAVIDES


Intolerance of uncertainty drives liberals and conservatives to polarizing partisanship

People who are intolerant of uncertainty are more likely to hold extreme beliefs, according to previous research.A new study shows that this phenomenon seems to apply to both the left and the right. The results are promising because they suggest political polarization might be mitigated by presenting information in a more neutral fashion and by helping people better tolerate uncertainty.In 2020, researchers at Stanford and Brown University published a study outlining how political polarization i...
Tags: Psychology, Politics, Stanford, Brown University, Earth, Bbc, Brain, United States, Innovation, Baar, PBS News, TPJ


Study: ADHD is overdiagnosed and overtreated

ADHD is an extremely contentious disorder in terms of diagnosis and treatment.A research team examined 334 studies on ADHD published between 1979 and 2020.The team concluded that ADHD is being overdiagnosed and overtreated in children with milder symptoms. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has long been a controversial topic. While the term "mental restlessness" dates back to 1798, English pediatrician George Still described the disorder in front of the Royal College of Physicians...
Tags: Psychology, Facebook, School, London, Biology, Children, Australia, Global, Adhd, Innovation, Derek, DSM, Royal College of Physicians, University of Sydney, Children's Health, George Still


7 most notorious and excessive Roman Emperors

Roman Emperors were known for their excesses and violent behavior. From Caligula to Elagabalus, the emperors exercised total power in the service of their often-strange desires.Most of these emperors met violent ends themselves.We rightfully complain about many of our politicians and leaders today, but historically speaking, humanity has seen much worse. Arguably no set of rulers has been as debauched, ingenious in their cruelty, and prone to excess as the Roman Emperors.While this list is certa...
Tags: Psychology, Politics, Sex, Government, History, Rome, Innovation, Hercules, Jupiter, Alexandria, Philo, Roman, Nero, Suetonius, Seneca, Gaul


How WallStreetBets “hype” spreads among investors like a virus

The study found evidence that "hype" over assets is psychologically contagious among investors in online communities.This hype is self-perpetuating: A small group of investors hypes an asset, bringing in new investors, until growth becomes unsteady and a price crash ensues.The researchers suggested that these new kinds of self-organized, social media-driven investment behaviors are unlikely to disappear anytime soon.Social media has reshaped human behavior in ways we're only starting to underst...
Tags: Psychology, Markets, Investment, Economics, Tesla, Sociology, Innovation, Reddit, Gamestop, Semenova WinklerBut


Why professional soccer players choke during penalty kicks

The new study is the first to use in-the-field imaging technology to measure brain activity as people delivered penalty kicks.Participants were asked to kick a total of 15 penalty shots under three different scenarios, each designed to be increasingly stressful.Kickers who missed shots showed higher activity in brain areas that were irrelevant to kicking a soccer ball, suggesting they were overthinking.In a 2019 soccer match, Swansea City was down 1-0 against West Brom late in the first half. ...
Tags: Psychology, Sports, Brain, Medical Research, Netherlands, Innovation, Swansea City, West Brom, Don, University of Twente, Bersant Celina, West Brom Swansea, Max Slutter, Slutter


Baby's first poop predicts risk of allergies

A new study finds that the contents of an infants' first stool, known as meconium, can predict if they'll develop allergies with a high degree of accuracy. A metabolically diverse meconium, which indicates the initial food source for the gut microbiota, is associated with fewer allergies.The research hints at possible early interventions to prevent or treat allergies just after birth.The prevalence of allergies arising in childhood has increased over the last 50 years, with 30 percent of the hu...
Tags: Health, Innovation, Microbes, Petersen, Stuart Turvey, Human body, Brett Finlay


The never-ending trip: LSD flashbacks and a psychedelic disorder that can last forever

LSD flashbacks have been studied for decades, though scientists still aren't quite sure why some people experience them. A subset of people who take psychedelics and then experience flashbacks develop hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), a rare condition in which people experience regular or near-constant psychedelic symptoms. There's currently no cure for the disorder, though some studies suggest medications may alleviate symptoms. In February 2021, Josh was in his room an...
Tags: Psychology, Drugs, Mental Health, Brain, Depression, Innovation, Reddit, Josh, Abraham, DSM, Albert Hoffman, Havelock Ellis, Credit Newwup, Adobe Stock People, Henry David Abraham, Macropsia


Study: There are four types of Alzheimer’s disease

A new study suggests that not all cases of Alzheimer's are the same. The disease progresses differently depending on where the tau protein is accumulating in the brain.This finding may provide a new route for research and treatment options.A new study by an international team of researchers suggests that there are at least four distinct forms of Alzheimer's disease, each of which attacks a different part of the brain. The findings, published in Nature Medicine , may be the foundation for a n...
Tags: Health, Sweden, Brain, Innovation, Alzheimer's, Lund University, Jacob Vogel, Oskar Hansson


The power of conformity: How good people do evil things

After World War II, many psychologists wanted to address the question of how it was that people could go along with the evil deeds of fascist regimes.Solomon Asch's experiment alarmingly showed just how easily we conform and how susceptible we are to group influence.People often will not only sacrifice truth and reason to conformity but also their own health and sense of right and wrong. It's the last question of the quiz, and Chloë knows the answer: it's Bolivia. Yes, it's definitely Bolivia....
Tags: Psychology, Germany, Innovation, Oxford, Panama, Bolivia, Shaun, Chloe, Stanley Milgram, Milgram, Zimbardo, Asch, Philip Zimbardo, Solomon Asch, Jonny Thomson, John Darley


The birth of childhood: A brief history of the European child

It took several thousand years for our culture to realize that a child is not an object. Learning how to treat children as humans continues to this day."Nature wants children to be children before they are men," wrote Jean-Jacques Rousseau in the book Emile, or On Education (1762). While Rousseau did not see children as humans, he appealed to parents to look after their offspring. "If we consider childhood itself, is there anything so weak and wretched as a child, anything so utterly at the merc...
Tags: Psychology, Europe, Family, New York, London, Sweden, Greece, Children, France, History, Britain, Innovation, Wheeler, Poland, Philosophy, Catholic Church



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