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Posts filtered by tags: Kanazawa University[x]


 

Holographic cosmological model and thermodynamics on the horizon of the universe

A holographic cosmological model with a power-law term has been proposed by a Kanazawa University researcher to study thermodynamic properties on the horizon of the Universe. This model was found to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics. In addition, a relaxation-like process of the Universe was examined systematically to study maximization of the entropy on the horizon.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Insights into the diagnosis and treatment brain cancer in children

In a recent study published in Autophagy, researchers at Kanazawa University show how abnormalities in a gene called TPR can lead to pediatric brain cancer.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Oblique electrostatic inject-deposited TiO2 film leads efficient perovskite solar cells

Kanazawa University researchers used a novel technique to deposit TiO2 layers for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The inkjet-deposited layers applied at an angle of 45°, without the need for a vacuum, were uniform and their thickness could be controlled by manipulating coating times. The resulting PSCs had an efficiency of 13.19%, making the technique promising as a simple, low-cost method that could be easily scaled-up for commercial production of efficient PSCs.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University, PSCs


Combined drug treatment for lung cancer and secondary tumors

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology a promising novel approach for a combined treatment of the most common type of lung cancer and associated secondary cancers in the central nervous system. The approach lies in combining two cancer drugs, with one compensating for a resistance side effect of the other.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Complete filling of batches of nanopipettes

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Analytical Chemistry an efficient method for filling a batch of nanopipettes with a pore opening below 10 nanometer. The method is based on the application of a temperature gradient to the nanopipette tips so that residual air bubbles are driven out.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Possible strategy for cancer treatment found in nuclear transport proteins

The nuclear import of proteins befalls through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and normally requires specific transport proteins. A type of a nuclear transport protein plays a key role in the proliferation and resistance to treatment of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells, report researchers at Kanazawa University. The results suggest that targeting specific nuclear transport systems may lead to possible therapeutic strategies.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


New study explains how inflammation causes gastric cancer

Researchers from Kanazawa University and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development have solved the decades-old mystery of how stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes gastric cancer. Using mouse models and human cancer cell lines, they showed that inflammation resulting from bacterial infection leads to the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells, which ultimately form gastric tumors. By blocking the protein pathway responsible for this proliferation, they prevented gastric tum...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development


Cell-type specific mechanism for formation and retrieval of cocaine-associated memories

A Japan-based research team led by Kanazawa University has revealed neuronal mechanisms underlying the formation and retrieval of cocaine use-associated memories. Their research sheds light on how drug addiction develops and reveals pathways that can be exploited for the development of strategies to treat cocaine addiction.
Tags: Japan, Science, Kanazawa University


Bright spot analysis for photodynamic diagnosis of brain tumors using confocal microscopy

A Japan-based research team led by Kanazawa University have found that bright spot areas have generally lower fluorescence in brain tumors than in normal tissues in images captured by irradiation with a 405 nm wavelength laser and 544.5-619.5 nm band-pass filter. This may facilitate discrimination of glioblastoma with or without 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and could be applicable to other tumors.
Tags: Japan, Science, Kanazawa University


Zero-emission diesel combustion using a non-equilibrium-plasma-assisted MnO 2 filter

A Japan-based research team led by Kanazawa University have used ozone from an atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma together with the desulfurization catalyst MnO2 to almost completely eliminate NOx and SOx from diesel exhaust gas at a low temperature of 473 K. This research shows that ozone can be used to remove not only SOx but also NOx from fossil fuel combustion exhaust streams.
Tags: Japan, Science, Kanazawa University


Layering titanium oxide's different mineral forms for better solar cells

A Japan-based research team led by Kanazawa University improved the efficiency of a new type of solar cell with a double layer consisting of pure anatase and brookite, two different mineral forms of titanium oxide. Using water-solute brookite nanoparticles, a brookite layer was fabricated on top of anatase, increasing solar cell efficiency by up to 16.82 percent.
Tags: Japan, Science, Kanazawa University


An intricate interaction: dietary fatty acid intake influences hypertension risk

Hypertension is an important public health problem that can lead to life-threatening cardiovascular events, including heart attack and stroke. Here, the relationship between dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids and hypertension, using blood pressure measurement and a diet history questionnaire. A Kanazawa University research team found that increased dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids positively impacted hypertension, but that this benefit was limited to individuals without impaired glucose toleranc...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Xeno/endobiotic metabolism potencies vary between strains and sex in rats

Rats are used commonly in nonclinical drug-development studies (DDS). Miki Nakajima and colleagues at Kanazawa University (Kanazawa, Japan) quantified hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt) isoforms in rats. They revealed strain- and sex-based differences in expression of Ugts in rats. This study would be helpful for pharmaceutical scientists in choosing the strains and sex of rats for DDS.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa Japan, Kanazawa University, Miki Nakajima, Ugts


Scientists at Kanazawa University have unravelled a link between inflammation and cancer

A new study published in Gastroenterology highlights the role of a gene-modulator in provoking stomach cancer.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Important signaling pathway in breast cancer revealed

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) that a particular signaling pathway in breast-cancer tumors causes cancer cells to divide symmetrically, expanding the tumor. Inhibiting the pathway by drugs could become a strategy for eliminating the cancer cells.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Proposed engineering method could help make buildings and bridges safer

Kanazawa University researchers discovered that the distance between dislocations in nanolayer interfaces of pearlite can determine how much the material can stretch or contract without breaking (ductility). The dislocations are disruptions in the regular arrangements of atoms in nanolayers. This discovery opens the possibility of engineering materials with higher ductility by simply manipulating the spacing between their dislocations and may improve the safety of structures such as buildings an...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Self-sorting through molecular geometries

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Communications Chemistry that certain pentagonal and hexagonal organic molecules exhibit self-sorting. The effect can be used to grow multilayered tubular structures that preserve the geometry of the initial cavities.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Neuroscience-protein that divides the brain

A recent study published in iScience researchers at Kanazawa University describes the role of a molecule, Netrin, in creating borders inside the brain to compartmentalize the functions of the brain.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Killing the liver-stage malaria parasite with baculovirus: a drug discovery approach

Currently, few antimalarial treatments exist that effectively kill liver-stage malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which can lay dormant for months or even years. Researchers at Kanazawa University have reported a new drug that could eliminate liver-stage malaria parasites completely. Using an insect virus, known as a baculovirus, the researchers investigated the ability of baculovirus to mediate innate immunity against malaria infection. This work could pave the way for developing new and more e...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Light-induced modification of a carboxylic acid with an aminocyclopropenone

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in The Journal of Organic Chemistry that carboxylic acids, functional groups contained in biomolecules, drugs, and materials can be readily modified by light-induced organic reactions using an aminocyclopropenone. This discovery opens up new pathways for carboxylic acid modification with potential applications including determination of drug target proteins, elucidation of protein function, and synthesis of functionalized polymer materials.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Searching an artificial bee colony for real-world results

The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is widely applied in many fields, but it suffers from slow convergence, so its solutions perform well in exploration but poorly in exploitation. Researchers from Kanazawa University and the University of Toyama proposed a scale-free mechanism to guide the search of the ABC algorithm. They verified that scale-free networks improve the algorithm's optimization performance and enhance the search ability of other metaheuristic algorithms.
Tags: Science, Abc, Kanazawa University, University of Toyama


Immune checkpoints could be key to treating autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis

The PD-1 immune checkpoint is essential for self-recognition by the immune system, with disruption of the pathway associated with several autoimmune disorders. However, the involvement of PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 in muscle-weakening autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis is unclear. Now, researchers at Kanazawa University have linked increased PD-L1 expression in the muscles of myasthenia gravis patients with disease severity and shown that this could ultimately help control the immune response a...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


A super-aging community is saving the declining rural Japan, but how it can sustain?

In Japan, rural tourism has been promoted for some time, but has few visible long-term positive effects. Researchers centered at Kanazawa University studied rural inn households that use tourism to supplement their incomes. While tourism was found to have environmental and strong social benefits, economic impact was minor. Many proprietors are also aging and lack successors. To thrive long-term, rural tourism destinations need greater competitiveness and would benefit from policies strengthening...
Tags: Japan, Science, Kanazawa University


Training with states of matter search algorithm enables neuron model pruning

The approximate logic neuron model (ALNM) is a single neural model with a dynamic dendritic structure. The ALNM uses a neural pruning function to eliminate unnecessary dendrite branches and synapses during training, but use of the backpropagation algorithm restricted the ALMN. A team including a researcher from Kanazawa University implemented a heuristic optimization method called the states of matter search (SMS) algorithm to train the ALMN, and produced superior performance in six benchmark cl...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University, ALMN


Shortening the rare-earth supply chain via recycling

A Japanese research team led by Kanazawa University used chelator chemistry to recycle rare earths (REs) from spent fluorescent lamps. These technologically crucial but expensive elements were extracted using EDTA, an aminopolycarboxylate, from lamp phosphors. Combined with planetary ball-milling of the RE-containing phosphors, the optimized process recovered REs with efficiencies up to 84 percent (for yttrium and europium). This shows that REs, which are increasingly hard to mine, can be recycl...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Bioactive novel compounds from endangered tropical plant species

A Japan-based research team led by Kanazawa University has isolated 17 secondary metabolites, including three novel compounds from the valuable endangered tropical plant species Alangium longiflorum. A newly isolated compound, 8-hydroxytubulosine (1), showed growth inhibitory effects at submicromolar levels against several human tumor cell lines except for drug transporter-overexpressing cells. Compound 1 caused accumulation of sub-G1 cells with no effect on cell cycle progression, suggesting th...
Tags: Japan, Science, Kanazawa University


Breaking supersymmetry

Supersymmetry predicts a relationship between the fundamental particles fermions and bosons. An extended version of a pioneering model of non-relativistic supersymmetry -- the Nicolai supersymmetric fermion lattice model -- is studied. Previously, it was verified that supersymmetry of the model breaks down only when the adjustable constant g > g0 ? 4/π. A researcher at Kanazawa University removed the restriction on g and showed that the extended version of the Nicolai supersymmetric fermion latt...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Imaging accumulated charges at solid-electrolyte interfaces

Researchers from Kanazawa University developed a three-dimensional open-loop electric potential microscopy technique to visualize the charge accumulation behavior at the interface between a solid electrode and liquid electrolyte. The technique was used for providing information about the charge distribution at the interface between a copper wire electrode and salt-based electrolyte. This technique increases our ability to probe nanoscale interfacial phenomena, making it useful for research in el...
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University


Novel mechanism for generating our skeleton

A Japan-based research team led by Kanazawa University has identified the MAPK Erk5 as a novel player controlling skeletogenesis. Their research sheds light on the question of how the complex our skeleton generates.
Tags: Japan, Science, Kanazawa University


Mechanism of biological noise cancellation revealed

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Scientific Reports how a particular biochemical signaling pathway cancels biological noise, ensuring the proper stem cell differentiation during development. The conclusions are based on a combination of mathematical modeling and genetic experiments on fruit flies.
Tags: Science, Kanazawa University



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