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Posts filtered by tags: Osaka University[x]


 

Celebrating our genomic diversity: Fine-scale differences in the Japanese population

The Japanese population has long been thought of as genetically homogeneous as a result of limited population mixing. However, an international research team led by Osaka University used novel machine-learning techniques to identify subtle genetic differences within the Japanese population. Regionality was identified among the sub-populations, reflecting the linguistic and cultural differences between regions in Japan. These minute genomic differences were shown to impact genetic prediction of h...
Tags: Japan, Science, Osaka University


How tissues harm themselves during wound healing

Researchers from Osaka University discovered that increased expression of Rbm7 in apoptotic tissue cells results in the recruitment of segregated-nucleus-containing atypical monocytes, leading to tissue fibrosis. These findings could help treat patients with tissue fibrosis.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Modeling the human eye in a dish

Researchers from Osaka University developed and validated a novel PITX2-eGFP hiPSC reporter line to model the development of periocular mesenchymal cells. These findings could help understand how the eye develops during embryogenesis and how it changes during disease processes.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Study shows key factors for reducing brain damage from cardiac arrest

Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) can improve blood flow to the brain after cardiac arrest and preserve neurological function. However, factors predicting who benefits from ECPR are unclear. In a multicenter clinical study, called CRITICAL and led by Osaka University, researchers found that shorter time between standard CPR and ECPR, as well as responsiveness to defibrillation, are associated with improved neurological outcomes. The findings may help improve international guide...
Tags: Science, Osaka University, ECPR


It's in our genome: Uncovering clues to longevity from human genetics

Researchers from Osaka University found that high blood pressure and obesity are the strongest factors reducing lifespan based on genetic and clinical information of 700,000 patients in the UK, Finland and Japan. These findings could be exploited to develop novel medical treatments to improve population health.
Tags: Japan, Science, Osaka University, UK Finland


How do you power billions of sensors? By converting waste heat into electricity

Osaka University researchers found that thermoelectric power generators lose a great deal of their possible output power because of thermal and electrical contact resistance. Improving this limitation will help society power interconnected technologies of the future.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Learning how cancer cells coordinate and collaborate to multiply and metastasize

Researchers from Osaka University and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology have cultured epithelial-like cancer cells on an artificial substrate and observed their collaborative self-organization into network structures that may function as nutritional conduits and provide vascular access. Understanding of the parameters that govern this coordinated behavior, including the various forces responsible, may explain tumor growth and metastasis, thus providing a basis f...
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Glass transition of spins and orbitals of electrons in a pure crystal

Researchers at Osaka University used computers simulations to show that lattice distortions in magnetic pyrochlore oxide crystals can control the glass transition of its electrons. This work can be with the design of new materials for data storage.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


A flexible brain for AI

Scientists at Osaka University developed a customizable computing device using nanofabricated switches than can be rewired to optimize AI applications using 80% less power. These devices can be used as flexible computing platform for artificial intelligence tasks.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


A tadpole with a twist: Left-right asymmetric development of Oikopleura dioica

Oikopleura dioica, a tadpole-like tunicate, shows a left-right patterning strategy that is distinct from other chordates, with left-right asymmetry emerging in the four-cell embryo. Osaka University researchers found that the O. dioica genome lacks the Nodal gene associated with left-right patterning in other chordates, and that Ca2+ oscillation and bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) gene expression determine its nonconventional left-right patterning, with the tail twisted 90° counterclockwise rel...
Tags: Science, BMP, Osaka University


Watch Researchers Giggle While They Electrocute a Lifelike Robot Child

It seems we’ve learned absolutely nothing from cautionary tales like the Terminator films, because researchers in Japan have upgraded a robot that looks like a human child with the ability to feel the pain from an electrical charge applied to its skin and wince in pain.Read more...
Tags: Japan, Science, Research, Robots, Robotics, Pain, Osaka University, Affetto


Tricky reaction sequence gets a major boost from a flow setup and statistics

Researchers from Osaka University have shown that the enantioselective organocatalyzed Rauhut-Currier and [3+2] annulation sequence in a microflow system can rapidly produce functionalized chiral spirooxindoles (up to 89% yield, 98% ee) within one minute. Although conventional methods for developing a flow synthesis procedure can be costly and labor-intensive, the researchers efficiently optimized multiple parameters by applying a machine learning algorithm. This unique approach may help realize...
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Simple N-terminal modification of proteins

Osaka University researchers report efficient one-step modification of protein N termini using functional molecules containing 1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbaldehyde (TA4C) groups. The conversion was found to be up to 92%. Amine-containing functional molecules were converted to TA4C reagents via Dimroth rearrangement in one simple step. Overall, the 2-step process offers a simple approach that is expected to be useful in engineering proteins for bioimaging, diagnostics, and pharmaceuticals.
Tags: Science, Amine, Osaka University, Dimroth


Are you 'at risk' of being a habitual tofu eater?

Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) in Japan and colleagues at Osaka University have found genetic variations in humans related to specific dietary habits. Published in Nature Human Behaviour, the genome-wide association study found 9 gene locations associated with eating and drinking foods like meat, tofu, cheese, tea, and coffee. Among them, three were also related to having particular diseases such as cancer or diabetes.
Tags: Japan, Science, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences IMS, Osaka University


Key to beating colorectal cancer hiding in plain sight?

Colorectal cancer, one of the most common cancers in the developed world, is intrinsically resistant to many drug therapies. In an attempt to identify novel treatment strategies, researchers led by Osaka University examined the contribution of serine racemase (SRR) to colorectal cancer metabolism. In a world first, the researchers showed that SRR is required for cancer cell proliferation, and that inhibition of SRR in mice halted tumor progression, paving the way for future drug development.
Tags: Science, Osaka University, SRR


Making sense of flexible sensor systems

A team of researchers from Osaka University and Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research developed the world's thinnest and lightest magnetic sensor matrix sheet system that visualizes the two-dimensional distribution of magnetism on various surfaces, with a sensitivity ten times higher than that of conventional systems. The researchers consider applications of the 'skin-like' magnetic sensor to damage detection in reinforced buildings and high-precision medical diagnosis.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Light-up wheels: Unique organic light-emitting molecular emitters

Researchers at Osaka University synthesized novel OLEDs based on efficient ring-shaped molecular macrocycles. This work may help lead to sensitive, yet inexpensive, chemical detectors.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Getting to the heart of epinephrine use in pediatric cardiac arrest patients

The effectiveness of epinephrine treatment during resuscitation of adult patients with cardiac arrest is generally promising, but little is known about its effects in pediatric patients. Researchers led by Osaka University have shown that prehospital administration of epinephrine in children who suffer out of hospital cardiac arrest significantly improves the return of spontaneous circulation, which may enhance their survival and the likelihood of a favorable neurological outcome.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Peering into the genome of brain tumor

Scientists at Osaka University have created a machine learning method for classifying the mutations of glioma brain tumors based on MR images alone. Thus far, classification has only been possible by tissue sampling during surgery. The new method is noninvasive, may remove the need for a tissue sample and help accelerate delivery of treatment for patients.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Getting to the heart of heart beats: Cardiac thin filament structure and function revealed

Osaka University team uses advanced electron cryomicroscopy and image analysis to reveal the structure of vital muscle thin filaments in the heart with the highest resolution ever. This work is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying cardiac muscle contractions and may lead to treatment for mutation-caused diseases such as cardiomyopathy and cardiac hypertrophy.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Utilizing relativistic effects for laser fusion: A new approach for clean power

Researchers at Osaka University studied a new approach for laser nuclear fusion utilizing relativistic phenomena of intense laser light. By irradiating the ultra-intense laser light directly onto the fusion fuel, the researchers examined signs of heating of fusion fuel. This work may lead to widespread, clean fusion power.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Hematopoietic stem cell marker: A key player in the ontogeny of hematopoiesis

A research team led by Osaka University revealed that Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule, a surface marker for hematopoietic stem cells and vascular endothelial cells, played an important role in the ontogeny of hematopoiesis in mice, particularly in the development of adult-type erythropoiesis.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


The next generation: mice can reproduce after space stints, study finds

There have been some signs that spending time in space could negatively affect sperm, including radiation damage seen in freeze-dried mouse sperm that spent nine months in outer space, and decreased sperm counts in rats that spent 13 days in orbit. Upon their return to Earth, the researchers used sperm from the mice to fertilise eggs from female mice who had not experienced space travel, and found the astronaut rodents produced healthy offspring. The team, led by Masahito Ikawa, a professor at...
Tags: Science, Earth, Osaka University, Masahito Ikawa


Location is everything for plant cell differentiation

During development, plant cell differentiation is guided by location rather than lineage. Now, researchers from Osaka University have shown that the accumulation and intracellular localization of regulatory protein ATML1, which controls the expression of genes associated with epidermal cell identity, are also critical for the differentiation of plant cells into an epidermal layer.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


From nata de coco to computer screens: Cellulose gets a chance to shine

Scientists at Osaka University determined the intrinsic birefringence of cellulose molecules, which have great potential to improve smartphone and computer screens.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Breakthrough alpha-ray treatment of cancer without external radiation

Radioactive iodine has been used for treatment of thyroid cancer. However, some thyroid tumors become resistant to iodine treatment. An Osaka University research team used a large accelerator to produce sodium astatide for injection, which emits highly therapeutic alpha rays that can be used in cancer treatment. This systemic alpha-ray exposure may enable breakthrough outpatient treatment of cancerous lesions throughout the body without involving external radiation therapy.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Interactive surfaces enter a whole new dimension of flexibility

Researchers at Osaka University propose a novel flexible tube display that is able to take various surface shapes. Information is expressed by streaming colored fluids through the tube and controlling the positions and lengths of the droplets. The tube's flexibility makes it possible to wrap the tube around the surface of an object and present information on its surface that is difficult to express on a standard two-dimensional display.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Adipocyte glucocorticoid receptors play a role in developing steroid diabetes

Researchers at Osaka University focused on glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), the receptors for the body's endogenous steroids, clarifying part of the mechanism behind metabolic disturbances caused by steroids.
Tags: Science, Osaka University


Buddhist robot priest to dole out advice in Kyoto temple

A 400-year-old temple in the deeply traditional Japanese city of Kyoto has unveiled a robotic deity to deliver Buddha’s teachings in a bid to reach younger generations of Japanese. The Android Kannon, based on the traditional Buddhist deity of mercy, delivered its first teachings at Kodaiji temple on Saturday and is due to start preaching to the public in March. Developed at a cost of Y100 million (£692,000), the robot is a joint project between the Zen temple and Hiroshi Ishiguro, a professor o...
Tags: Science, Kyoto, Buddha, Buddhist, Osaka University, Asahi, Ishiguro, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Kannon, Kodaiji, Tensho Goto


More physical than chemical: Researchers show what really gets cells going

Collective cell migration is essential in many organisms, with roles in human cellular processes including cancer invasion and wound healing. Now, a team led by researchers at Osaka University have found that traditional thinking regarding the role of chemical signalling in collective cell migration may not hold true. The researchers found that in the later stages of development of a model unicellular amoeba, cell-to-cell contact rather than cAMP signalling is likely to trigger cell motility.
Tags: Science, Osaka University



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