Posts filtered by tags: Ancient World[x]


 

Can you step in the same river twice? Wittgenstein vs. Heraclitus

'I am not a religious man,' the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein once said to a friend, 'but I cannot help seeing every problem from a religious point of view.' These problems that he claims to see from a religious point of view tend to be technical matters of logic and language. Wittgenstein trained as an engineer before he turned to philosophy, and he draws on mundane metaphors of gears, levers and machinery. Where you find the word 'transcendent' in Wittgenstein's writings, you'll likely find ...
Tags: Psychology, Religion, Innovation, Philosophy, Mind, Debate, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Heraclitus, Wittgenstein, Meister Eckhart, Ancient World, Parmenides, David EganThis


How high did our ancestors get? We might soon be able to tell.

Archaeologists can now tell what drugs our ancestors used thanks to tooth tartar. For this study, they tested 10 cadavers and discovered 44 drugs and metabolites.This new method will offer us insights into the types of drugs our ancestors used. Archaeologists rejoiced last year when a team discovered that an Israeli shrine contained remnants of cannabis and frankincense. Improved laboratory techniques allowed the researchers to test substances discovered on the altar, which dates back to 750-7...
Tags: Facebook, Biology, Drugs, Innovation, Anthropology, Vatican, Archaeology, Denmark, Aarhus, Derek, Aarhus University, Leiden University, Ancient World, Department of Forensic Medicine, Bartholdy, Scientific Studies


Did early humans hibernate?

Neanderthal bone fragments discovered in northern Spain mimic hibernating animals like cave bears. Thousands of bone fragments, dating back 400,000 years, were discovered in this "pit of bones" 30 years ago. The researchers speculate that this physiological function, if true, could prepare us for extended space travel. Humans have a terrible sense of time. We think in moments, not eons, which accounts for a number of people that still don't believe in evolutionary theory: we simply can't imagi...
Tags: Facebook, Space, Spain, Nasa, Innovation, Anthropology, Archaeology, Iberia, Anthropologie, Physiology, Derek, Sima, Atapuerca, Democritus University of Thrace, Ancient World, Human body


An ancient migration across the ocean was no accident

Historians have wondered whether ancient mariners drifted from Taiwan to Japan or navigated there on purpose.The passage between Taiwan and the Ryukyu islands contains one of the world's strongest currents.Thousands of buoys suggests that the journey was anything but an accident. It's something experts are still piecing together, but there's a growing body of evidence that as humans left Africa and scattered across the globe, they often did so by traversing land bridges that are now underwater,...
Tags: Travel, Asia, Japan, Australia, Africa, History, Taiwan, Discovery, Ocean, Innovation, Anthropology, University Of Tokyo, New Guinea, Okinawa, Ancient World, Ryukyu Islands


What the Greek classics tell us about grief and the importance of mourning the dead

As the coronavirus pandemic hit New York in March, the death toll quickly went up with few chances for families and communities to perform traditional rites for their loved ones.A reporter for Time magazine described how bodies were put on a ramp, then onto a loading dock and stacked on wooden racks. Emergency morgues were set up to handle the large number of dead. By official count, New York City alone had 20,000 dead over a period of two months. Months later, our ability to mourn and process d...
Tags: Death, New York, New York City, Time, History, Innovation, Anthropology, Athens, Community, Literature, Iliad, Achilles, Antigone, Trojans, Pericles, Thucydides


California cave art linked to early use of hallucinogens

Mysterious pinwheel paintings in a California cave are probably representations of the hallucinogen Datura wrightii.The paintings were made by the Chumash people 400 years ago.This is the first definitive connection between cave painting and hallucinogens. Mysterious paintings on cave walls and ceilings from long ago no doubt offer insights into the lives of the people who made them. However, exactly what they tell us is less clear. While hunting scenes and images of communities seem straightfor...
Tags: Art, California, Drugs, Religion, Painting, Creativity, Chemistry, Innovation, Archeology, University Of Southampton, Robinson, PNAS, David Robinson, University of Strathclyde, Datura, Matthew Baker


How psychedelics help you "die before you die"

The concept of "dying before you die" lies at the heart of religious tradition, argues Brian Muraresku.This secret ritual connects the Eleusinian Mysteries with the origins of Christianity. In "The Immortality Key," Muraresku speculates that psychedelic wine could have been the original Christian Eucharist. After a 20-year ban on clinical psychedelics research, the U.S. government approved trials on DMT in 1990. At first, Rick Strassman, a clinical associate professor of psychiatry at the Univ...
Tags: Psychology, Facebook, Death, Drugs, Religion, David, Christianity, Innovation, Storytelling, Catholic, Damascus, Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, Derek, Peter, Mdma


Is Christianity rooted in psychedelic rituals?

In his new book, Brian Muraresku speculates that the Christian Eucharist could be rooted in the Eleusinian Mysteries. The wine and wafer of the modern ritual might have started off with a far more potent beverage. In this interview with Big Think, Muraresku discusses "dying before dying" and the demonization of women by the Church. Brian Muraresku wants to be very clear: the immortality key is not psychedelics. He's referring to the concept of "dying before dying," a mystical, near-death state...
Tags: Facebook, Greece, Church, Religion, Jerusalem, History, Rome, Pope Francis, Christianity, Innovation, Vatican, Philosophy, Catholic Church, Archeology, Francis, Archives


War in the time of Neanderthals: How our species battled for supremacy for over 100,000 years

Around 600,000 years ago, humanity split in two. One group stayed in Africa, evolving into us. The other struck out overland, into Asia, then Europe, becoming Homo neanderthalensis – the Neanderthals. They weren't our ancestors, but a sister species, evolving in parallel.Neanderthals fascinate us because of what they tell us about ourselves – who we were, and who we might have become. It's tempting to see them in idyllic terms, living peacefully with nature and each other, like Adam and Eve in t...
Tags: Asia, Europe, Greece, Iraq, Africa, Israel, History, War, Middle East, Innovation, Violence, Archeology, Humanity, Neanderthals, Adam, Sapiens


Scientists piece together the story of humans and dogs

The earliest dog, not wolf, found so far comes from over 15,000 years ago.A new study tracks the travel and development of dogs since the end of the Ice Age.Insights are derived by comparing ancient canine DNA with ancient human DNA. We know that at some point long ago there were wild wolves who became companions for humans, and eventually evolved into dogs. The oldest verified dog remains, found in Germany, are from 15,000-16,000 years ago. Much of the story remains mysterious, though. Where i...
Tags: Europe, UK, Dogs, Germany, Americas, History, Genetics, Innovation, Evolution, Siberia, University of Oxford, Huskies, Paleontology, Francis Crick, Near East, University of Vienna


Eighth century pagan temple to Old Norse gods unearthed in Norway

A 1,200-year-old temple to the Old Norse gods including Thor and Odin has been unearthed in Norway by a team of archaeologists. It was likely used for worship and sacrifices to gods during the midsummer and midwinter solstices, and other fertility festivals. Icelanders are officially practicing the Old Norse pagan religions again; the first temple to the Norse gods in 1000 years is currently being constructed in the City of Reykjavík. A 1,200-year-old temple to Norse gods like Thor, Odin, and F...
Tags: Sweden, Religion, History, Innovation, Anthropology, Archaeology, Denmark, Norway, Ose, Thor, Odin, Ancient World, Thor Odin, Freyer, Freyr, Uppåkra


Moral failings of leaders collapsed even the best societies, study finds

Researchers found a commonality between the collapse of ancient empires.Even the best-run nations fell apart because of leaders who undermined social contracts.The scientists found that societies that had good governments broke up even worse than those with dictators. As America chooses its next President, a new study suggests that even the most powerful and best-run empires have collapsed under leaders who broke social contracts.The anthropology study took a deep dive into 30 pre-modern societ...
Tags: Politics, Elections, Government, America, Society, History, Chicago, Innovation, Anthropology, MacArthur, Feinman, Purdue University, Blanton, Ancient World, Gary Feinman, Richard Blanton


Moral failings of leaders collapsed even the best societies, finds study

Researchers found a commonality between the collapse of ancient empires.Even the best-run nations fell apart because of leaders who undermined social contracts.The scientists found that societies that had good governments broke up even worse than those with dictators. As America chooses its next President, a new study says that even the most powerful and best-run empires have collapsed under leaders who broke social contracts.The anthropology study took a deep dive into 30 pre-modern societies ...
Tags: Politics, Elections, Government, America, Society, History, Chicago, Innovation, Anthropology, MacArthur, Feinman, Purdue University, Blanton, Ancient World, Gary Feinman, Richard Blanton


Researchers discover intact brain cells of man killed by Mt Vesuvius eruption

A team of researchers in Italy discovered the intact brain cells of a young man who died in the Mount Vesuvius eruption in A.D. 79.The brain's cell structure was visible to researchers (who used an electron microscope) in a glassy, black material found inside the man's skull. The material was likely the victim's brain preserved through the process of vitrification in which the intense heat followed by rapid cooling turned the organ to glass. Almost 2,000 years ago, Mount Vesuvius — located on t...
Tags: Science, Brain, Nature, Italy, Innovation, Anthropology, Archaeology, Natural Disaster, Naples, Pompeii, Augustus, Campania Italy, Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum, Petrone, Ancient World


Designer uses AI to bring 54 Roman emperors to life

A quarantine project gone wild produces the possibly realistic faces of ancient Roman rulers.A designer worked with a machine learning app to produce the images.It's impossible to know if they're accurate, but they sure look plausible. Imaginative as humans are, it's often hard not to see historical figures depicted in black-and-white photos as being somehow of another species. Confronted with colorized images can be startling — hey, they look like us — bringing home at last what they were real...
Tags: Hollywood, History, Rome, Artificial Intelligence, Innovation, Visualizations, Machine Learning, Ai, Agrippa, Nero, Caligula, Prediction, Ancient World, Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Roman Emperor, Daniel Voshart


Iron Age discoveries uncovered outside London, including a ‘murder’ victim

A skeleton representing a man who was tossed face down into a ditch nearly 2,500 years ago with his hands bound in front of his hips was dug up during an excavation outside of London.The discovery was made during a high speed rail project that has been a bonanza for archaeology, as the area is home to more than 60 ancient sites along the planned route.An ornate grave of a high status individual from the Roman period and an ancient ceremonial circle were also discovered during the excavations. ...
Tags: Europe, Death, England, London, History, Innovation, Archaeology, Violence, Wood, Great Britain, Ancient World, Rachel Wood, Wellwick Farm, Wendover That, Icknield Way, Chiltern Hills


Scientists solve the origin of Stonehenge’s sarsen stones

Researchers have known Stonehenge's smaller bluestones came from Preseli Hills, Wales, but the source of its sarsens has remained a mystery. Using chemical analysis, scientists found at matching source at West Woods, approximately 25 kilometer north of the World Heritage Site. But mysteries remain, such as why that site was chosen. ​ Many mysteries surround Stonehenge . Who built it and what purpose did it serve? Why that arrangement of megaliths and lentils? How did Neolithic people move and...
Tags: Europe, Wales, History, Bbc, Geology, Innovation, Archeology, Wiltshire, Marlborough, English Heritage, Phillips, Nash, Salisbury Plain, David Nash, Brighton University, Ancient World


Mexican cave contains signs of human visitors from 30,000 years ago

Scientists have found ancient tools as well as plant and animal remains in a high-altitude cave.The site is dated to 30,000 years ago, pushing back estimates of the first humans to arrive in the Americas by 15,000 years.There is no sign these mysterious people remain in the modern gene pool. The stunning discoveries recently made in northern Mexico's Chiquihuite Cave raise more questions than they answer. Even so, they change the conversation: The Clovis people who arrived 15,000 years ago in...
Tags: Mexico, Americas, History, Migration, Alaska, Innovation, Archaeology, Siberia, University of Oxford, Archeology, North America, Beringia, University of New South Wales, Boston Massachusetts, Harvard Medical School, University of Copenhagen


An ancient tomcat skeleton is found along the Silk Road

Until now, it was thought that cats weren't domesticated in Central Asia until much later.The completeness and details of the skeleton suggest it was someone's pet.Isotopic examination reveals a high-protein diet most likely provided by caring humans. Piecing together history through archaeology is inherently sketchy. Clues that tell a complete story could be anywhere — so much depends on the artifacts that just happened to have been found. It's a credit to archaeologists' knowledge and imagina...
Tags: Silk Road, Asia, Cats, China, Animals, History, Innovation, Kazakhstan, Archeology, Mediterranean, Central Asia, Caspian Sea, BCE, Martin Luther University, Halle Wittenberg, Ancient World


48,000-year-old bone arrowheads and jewelry discovered in Sri Lankan cave

Archaeologists discovered a trove of bone tools used roughly 48,000 years ago in a Sri Lankan cave.Uncovered artifacts include the earliest known bow-and-arrow devices found out of Africa, weaving utensils, and decorative beads chiseled from the tips of marine snail shells. The findings underline the necessity of looking for early Homo sapien innovation in regions outside of the grasslands and coasts of Africa or Europe, where much of the research has been focused. A group of archaeologists hav...
Tags: Asia, Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa, Americas, History, Innovation, Anthropology, Archaeology, Sri Lanka, Griffith University, South Asia, Patrick Roberts, Eurasia, Langley


Ancient Greeks devised a way to fight disinformation

Sophists were more interested in arriving at practical truths through rhetoric than an absolute Truth (Sophia).Their techniques were heavily criticized by Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates. Asha Rangappa and Jennifer Mercieca write that Sophist techniques are particularly useful for recognizing and fighting disinformation. Octavian had a bone to pick with Mark Antony. The latter claimed the Eastern Roman Empire as he moved in with his lover, Cleopatra. Octavian wasn't having it. He read Antony's ...
Tags: Politics, Media, Democracy, Government, Senate, Nazis, America, Cnn, Rome, George Bush, Innovation, Philosophy, Truth, Trump, Derek, Yale University


A buried ancient Roman city uncovered using radar technology

Using ground-penetrating radar, layers of an ordinary field in Italy are pulled back to reveal a lost Roman town.Without disturbing a single artifact, an incredible level of detail is uncovered.The buried town, Falerii Novi, has been quietly awaiting discovery since it was abandoned at the start of medieval age. It doesn't look like much to the naked eye. It's basically an empty field, but if you caught it on the right days, you'd have seen a quad-wheel bike going back and forth while pulling a...
Tags: Greece, Rome, Discovery, Italy, Innovation, Cambridge, Visualizations, Archaeology, Urban Planning, Libya, Computer Vision, Forensics, Pompeii, Millet, Cyrene, Ancient World


Cannabis discovered at an ancient biblical shrine in Israel

Cannabis and frankincense were discovered at the "holy of holies" shrine in Tel Arad, Israel. Both substances were mixed with animal dung to promote heating. This marks the first time cannabis has been found in the Kingdom of Judah. In an extensive review of the history and pharmacology of psychedelics, American chemist David E. Nichols writes that this class of serotonergic hallucinogens "may be the oldest class of psychopharmacological agents known to man." Three thousand year old hymns to...
Tags: Drugs, Kingdom, Israel, Religion, Tel Aviv, History, Cannabis, Middle East, Innovation, Archaeology, Derek, Herodotus, Vedas, Shiva, Twitter Facebook, BCE


A mammoth graveyard: 60 pachyderm skeletons discovered together in Mexico

During digging for a new airport in Mexico, workers came across three sites containing the remains of mammoths, as well as some pre-Spanish human burial sites.It's unclear why the mammoths were all found in this one spot, though it may have to do with an ancient lake.Retrieving this massive sample will likely give experts new insights into a long-lost North American pachyderm. In the Mexico Basin about 45 miles north of Mexico City in the Santa Lucía region, the new Felipe Ángeles Airport is un...
Tags: Mexico, Animals, Los Angeles, Discovery, Mexico City, Innovation, Archeology, North America, Extinct, Santa Lucia, INAH, Ancient World, Tultepec, SEDENA, Mammoths, Mexico Basin


Ancient Rome in five-minute animated fly-through

It's hard to imagine what places like ancient Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome might have looked like in all of their glory. New Historia tries to shed some light on what everyday life might have looked and felt like with their series of 3D "cinematic animations." Here is their five-minute fly-through over ancient Rome. No idea why they chose to not paint the statues. It's always been my understanding that the statuary was painted in bright, vivid colors. Image: YouTube
Tags: Post, News, Rome, Archeology, Computer Animation, Ancient World, Babylon Egypt Greece, New Historia


What did Ancient Romans do without toilet paper?

We've all been caught unawares by our digestive tract at one time or another.It happened to the Nash family several months ago. We were nearing the end of an extended road trip, driving down a secondary highway through a sparsely populated area of Colorado at night, when one of my 9-year-old twin sons had to use the bathroom. Despite my pleading, he said he couldn't make it to the next town. (He had to poop.) So we pulled over and headed for the bushes. After he took care of his business, we rea...
Tags: Health, New York, Colorado, China, India, US, Society, History, Rome, United States, Innovation, Anthropology, Ethiopia, Archeology, Denver, Pompeii


How does intellectual humility unlock greater knowledge?

Classical liberalist thinking is based on the fundamental notion that we're all equal as citizens within our governmental order. This thought lends itself to the specific principle of intellectual humility.Senior Program Officer at the Institute for Humane Studies, Bradley Jackson provides the definition of intellectual humility as recognition that we have imperfect knowledge of the world. If each of us remains intellectually humble, this levels us as equals.Putting this into practice calls for ...
Tags: Learning, Education, Communication, Society, Intelligence, Teaching, Language, Innovation, Storytelling, Community, Philosophy, Debate, Speech, Curiosity, Personal Growth, Ancient World


How far does individual freedom reach?

Classical liberals favor democracy because it operates as a ruling of the people by the people, rather than rule by someone else.This lends itself to the concept of negative freedom, or freedom from being compelled by the state or other authority to do something. So Daniel Jacobson, professor of philosophy at University of Michigan, raises the question: Do we have absolute sovereignty over our bodies?The crucial point for liberalism is that liberty ought to be the default. It shouldn't be easy t...
Tags: Learning, Education, Identity, Law, Democracy, Government, Happiness, Society, History, United States, Innovation, Philosophy, Humanity, University Of Michigan, Self, Daniel Jacobson


Marcus Aurelius’ guide to becoming a morning person

Getting up in the morning stinks. Marcus Aurelius, the philosopher King of Rome, even had to write advice on getting up in his masterpiece Meditations.While the advice might not make you a fully fledged morning person, it might make getting up just a little easier. Let's be real, mornings can suck. Beds can be cozy, alarms can be irritating, and the idea of going to work can sound like a call to go on a death march. This is nothing new; people have been complaining about mornings since they inve...
Tags: Sleep, History, Rome, Innovation, Philosophy, Personal Growth, Marcus Aurelius, Aurelius, Ancient World, Pierre Hadot


The pagan origins of three Catholic practices

The Catholic rite of Holy Communion parallels pre-Christian Greco-Roman and Egyptian rituals that involved eating the body and blood of a god.A number of Catholic holidays and myths, such as Christmas, Easter, and Mardi Gras, graph onto the timeline of pre-Christian fertility festivals. The Catholic practice of praying to saints has been called "de-facto idolatry" and even a relic of goddess worship. By the fourth century, the Christian Church had established itself as the official faith of ...
Tags: Isis, Nature, Ireland, Egypt, Feminism, Christianity, Innovation, Catholic Church, Catholic, Christ, Catholics, Jesus Christ, Mardi Gras, Virgin Mary, Roman Empire, Christian Church