Posts filtered by tags: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology[x]


 

Skull From Czech Cave May Contain Oldest Modern Human Genome

A genome sequenced from a modern human skull has been dated at approximately 45,000 years old, making it the oldest discovery of its kind. It’s a significant archaeological discovery, but the use of an unconventional dating method leaves the result in doubt. In a related study, scientists also show that intermixing…Read more...
Tags: Science, Archaeology, Neanderthals, Stone Age, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic, Specimen, Neanderthal, Cosimo Posth, Ishim, Israel Hershkovitz, Hershkovitz, Bacho Kiro, Middle Stone Age, Early Modern Human


New Corona test developed

In order to monitor and contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 it is necessary to test large numbers of people on a regular basis in decentralized settings. Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the Hospital St. Georg in Leipzig, Germany, have developed improved protocols for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The method can detect a positive sample in a pool with 25 uninfected samples in less than one hour.
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Hospital St Georg


A genetic advantage inherited from Neanderthals could give some people a 22% lower risk of severe COVID-19

A model of a Neanderthal male in his twenties on display at the Natural History Museum in London in September 2014. Will Oliver/PA Images/Getty Some people may have genes inherited from Neanderthals that reduce their risk of severe COVID-19 by 22%, a study found. But the same researchers previously found that Neanderthal DNA can also put people at higher risk of respiratory failure due to COVID-19.  The inherited genes are more common in Europe and Asia. Visit the Business section of Insid...
Tags: Asia, Europe, Science, London, News, Sweden, New York City, Africa, Trends, Croatia, Siberia, Natural History Museum, South Asia, Neanderthals, Afp, West Nile


Neandertal gene variants both increase and decrease the risk for severe COVID-19

Last year, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany showed that a major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neandertals. Now the same researchers show, in a study published in PNAS, that Neandertals also contributed a protective variant. Half of all people outside Africa carry a Neandertal gene variant that reduces the risk of needing intensive care for COVID-19 by 20 percent.
Tags: Science, Sweden, Africa, PNAS, Karolinska Institutet, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Neandertals


Y chromosomes of Neandertals and Denisovans now sequenced

An international research team led by Martin Petr and Janet Kelso of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has determined Y chromosome sequences of three Neandertals and two Denisovans. These Y chromosomes provide new insights into the relationships and population histories of archaic and modern humans, including new evidence for ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Neandertals.
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Neandertals, Janet Kelso, Martin Petr


Like humans, chimpanzees can suffer for life if orphaned before adulthood

A new study from the Tai Chimpanzee Project in Ivory Coast and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, shows that orphaned male chimpanzees are less competitive and have fewer offspring of their own than those who continue to live with their mothers. The remaining puzzle is, what is it that their mothers provide that keeps chimpanzees healthy and competitive?
Tags: Science, Ivory Coast, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Tai Chimpanzee Project


Chimpanzees show greater behavioural and cultural diversity in more variable environments

An international team led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) has investigated the influence of environmental variability on the behavioural repertoires of 144 social groups. The scientists found that chimpanzees living further away from historical forest refugia, under more seasonal conditions, and found in savannah woodland rather than closed forested habitats, were more likely to exhibit a larger set of b...
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv


Neandertals may have had a lower threshold for pain

Pain is mediated through specialized nerve cells that are activated when potentially harmful things affect various parts of our bodies. These nerve cells have a special ion channel that has a key role in starting the electrical impulse that signals pain and is sent to the brain. According to a new study by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany and the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden people who inherited the Neandertal variant of this ion channel experie...
Tags: Science, Sweden, Germany, Karolinska Institutet, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology


Clear strategies needed to reduce bushmeat hunting

Extensive wildlife trade not only threatens species worldwide but can also lead to the transmission of zoonotic diseases. An international research team led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research shed new light on the motivations why people hunt, trade or consume different species. The research shows that more differentiated solutions are needed to prevent uncontrolled disease emergence and species decline.
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research


DNA Linked to COVID-19 Was Inherited From Neanderthals, Study Finds

A stretch of DNA linked to COVID-19 was passed down from Neanderthals 60,000 years ago, according to a new study.Scientists don't yet know why this particular segment increases the risk of severe illness from the coronavirus. But the new findings, which were posted online Friday and have not yet been published in a scientific journal, show how some clues to modern health stem from ancient history."This interbreeding effect that happened 60,000 years ago is still having an impact today," said...
Tags: Asia, Europe, News, Sweden, Australia, Africa, Spain, United Kingdom, New York Times, Italy, Croatia, Bangladesh, South Asia, Princeton University, East Asia, Vanderbilt University




A Neandertal from Chagyrskaya Cave

Until now, only the genomes of two Neandertals have been sequenced to high quality: one from Vindjia Cave in modern-day Croatia and one from Denisova Cave in Siberia's Altai Mountains. A research team led by Svante Pääbo from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has now sequenced the genome of a third Neandertal whose remains were found - 106 kilometres away from the latter site - in Chagyrskaya Cave.
Tags: Science, Croatia, Siberia, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Denisova Cave, Altai Mountains, Svante Paabo, Chagyrskaya Cave, Vindjia Cave


In chimpanzees, females contribute to the protection of the territory

Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, extensively studied several neighboring groups of western chimpanzees and their findings reveal that females and even the entire group may play a more important role in between-group competition than previously thought. They found that even though adult males seem important in territory increase, territory maintenance and competitive advantage over neighbors act through the entire group in this population ...
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany


Women with Neandertal gene give birth to more children

One in three women in Europe inherited the receptor for progesterone from Neandertals -- a gene variant associated with increased fertility, fewer bleedings during early pregnancy and fewer miscarriages. This is according to a study published in Molecular Biology and Evolution by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.
Tags: Europe, Science, Germany, Karolinska Institutet, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology


Similar to humans, chimpanzees develop slowly

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have systematically investigated developmental milestones in wild chimpanzees of the Taï National Park (Ivory Coast) and found that they develop slowly, requiring more than five years to reach key motor, communication and social milestones. This timeframe is similar to humans, suggesting slow maturation of the brain.
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Taï National Park Ivory Coast


Cultural diversity in chimpanzees

Termite fishing by chimpanzees was thought to occur in only two forms with one or multiple tools, from either above-ground or underground termite nests. By carefully observing the techniques required to termite fish at ten different sites, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, created a catalogue of behaviours for each chimpanzee in the study.
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany


Lucy had an ape-like brain

A new study led by paleoanthropologists Philipp Gunz and Simon Neubauer from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, reveals that Lucy's species Australopithecus afarensis had an ape-like brain. However, the protracted brain growth suggests that -- as is the case in humans -- infants may have had a long dependence on caregivers.
Tags: Science, Lucy, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer


The growing pains of orphan chimpanzees

Using long-term behavioral and hormonal data from wild chimpanzees in the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire, researchers from the Taï Chimpanzee Project at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, have revealed that mothers may be shaping pre-adult growth and offspring muscle mass even without direct provisioning. We compared growth of young chimpanzees with a mother until adulthood compared to those who had experienced maternal loss after weaning.
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Taï Forest Côte d Ivoire


Less offspring due to territorial conflicts

Territorial conflicts can turn violent in humans and chimpanzees, two extremely territorial species. An international team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has studied the effects of territoriality on female reproductive success in wild Western chimpanzees and found that high neighbor pressure at times when females typically reproduce can lead to reproductive delays with longer intervals between births. Having many males in a group, ...
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany


Tortoises on the menu

An international team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig and the University of Osnabrück, Germany, have observed wild chimpanzees in the Loango National Park, Gabon, eating tortoises. They describe the first observations of this potentially cultural behavior where chimpanzees hit tortoises against tree trunks until the tortoises' shells break open and then feed on the meat.
Tags: Science, Leipzig, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Loango National Park Gabon, University of Osnabrück Germany


Social insecurity also stresses chimpanzees

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology conducted behavioral observations and collected urine samples for cortisol analysis of male chimpanzees of the Tai National Park, Ivory Coast, during periods of intense male-male competition. They showed that all males had higher stress levels during periods of increased male-male competition while aggression rates were actually lower during this time. This may indicate that in times of social instability animals refrain fro...
Tags: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Taï National Park Ivory Coast


Wild African ape reactions to novel camera traps

An international team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, analyzed video from remote camera-trap devices placed in ape-populated forests throughout Africa to see how wild apes would react to these unfamiliar objects. Responses varied by species, and even among individuals within the same species, but one thing was consistent throughout: the apes definitely noticed the cameras.
Tags: Africa, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany


New study shows human impact erodes chimpanzee behavioral diversity

A research team led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research investigated whether chimpanzee behavioral diversity is reduced when there is high human impact on their habitats. By comparing sets of chimpanzee behaviors across a large number of social groups exposed to different levels of human disturbance, the scientists found a reduction in behavioral diversity when human impact was high. The results of the study were p...
Tags: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research


Human encroachment is obliterating chimpanzee culture

A study finds that human impact is decimating the cultures of chimpanzee communities in the wild. Unique localized behaviors are being reduced by 88 percent. Socialized learning in chimps has finally been established, just in time to be destroyed. None People who enjoy travel have seen this trend becoming more and more pronounced even in human populations: There's an increasing homogeneity among our cultures, a loss of local identity as we increasingly eat the same foods, watch the same movies...
Tags: Animals, Africa, Environment, Sustainability, Culture, Atlantic, Innovation, Anthropocene, Primates, Apes, Jane Goodall, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Kalan, Gulf of Maine, Chimpanzee, Ammie Kalan


Chimpanzees lose their behavioral and cultural diversity

Chimpanzees are well known for their extraordinary diversity of behaviors, with some behaviors also exhibiting cultural variation. An international research team led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) investigated whether chimpanzee behavioral diversity is reduced under high human impact. By comparing sets of chimpanzee behaviors across a large number of social groups exposed to different levels of human di...
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research iDiv


Neandertals' main food source was definitely meat

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany describe two late Neandertals with exceptionally high nitrogen isotope ratios, which would traditionally be interpreted as the signature of freshwater fish consumption. By studying the isotope ratios of single amino acids, they however demonstrated that instead of fish, the adult Neandertal had a diet relying on large herbivore mammals and that the other Neandertal was a breastfeeding baby whose mother was also a ...
Tags: Germany, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology


Competent chimpanzee nutcrackers

Humans are considered to be superior tool users and uniquely able to teach skills to apprentices. However, a clear understanding of the differences between humans and other animal species has been limited by our difficulty to perform natural cross-species comparisons. A research team from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and from the University College London, UK, compared humans' and chimpanzees' learning to crack the same species of nuts as they forag...
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, University College London UK


Word order predicts a native speakers' working memory

Memory plays a crucial role in our lives, and several studies have already investigated how we store and retrieve information under different conditions. Typically, stimuli presented at the beginning and at the end of a list are recalled better than stimuli from the middle. But are these findings universal and generalizable across languages and cultures? An international research team, led by Federica Amici from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has rece...
Tags: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Federica Amici


Word order predicts a native speaker's working memory

Memory plays a crucial role in our lives, and several studies have already investigated how we store and retrieve information under different conditions. Typically, stimuli presented at the beginning and at the end of a list are recalled better than stimuli from the middle. But are these findings universal and generalizable across languages and cultures? An international research team, led by Federica Amici from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has rece...
Tags: Science, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Germany, Federica Amici


Despite government claims, orangutan populations have not increased

Leipzig/Brunei. Orangutan populations are still declining rapidly, despite claims by the Indonesian Government that things are looking better for the red apes. In the journal Current Biology, a team of scientists including Maria Voigt of the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology criticise the use of inappropriate methods for assessing management impacts on wildlife trends. The researchers call for scientifically soun...
Tags: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Integrative Biodiversity Research, Leipzig Brunei Orangutan, Maria Voigt