Posts filtered by tags: Nature Genetics[x]


 

Scientists discover why supermarket tomatoes taste so bland

Scientists compared the genomes of 725 wild and cultivated tomatoes (a pan-genome) to the tomato genome that's used to represent all varieties. The representative genome was missing thousands of genes present in the pan-genome, including one that's responsible for imparting flavor to the vegetable.The good news is that breeders seem to have recently began selecting for flavor, so it's possible that store-bought tomatoes could soon start tasting better. None Ever wonder why those pale-orange toma...
Tags: Food, Science, Usda, Genetics, Innovation, Heinz, Cornell University, Nature Genetics, Giovanni, Ithaca New York, Zhangjun Fei, James Giovannoni


BTI scientists create new genomic resource for improving tomatoes

Tomato breeders have traditionally emphasized production traits, like larger and more fruits per plant. As a result, some quality traits -- like flavor and disease resistance -- were lost. Researchers from Boyce Thompson Institute and colleagues published a tomato pan-genome in Nature Genetics, establishing a resource that promises to help breeders develop more flavorful and sustainable varieties. The researchers found 4,873 new genes and identified a rare allele that can make tomatoes tastier.
Tags: Nature Genetics, BTI, Boyce Thompson Institute


Uncovering the origins of cultivated strawberries

In a new study published in Nature Genetics, researchers now unveil how the strawberry became an octoploid, as well as the genetics that determine important fruit quality traits. What researchers uncovered is a complex evolutionary history that started long ago on opposite sides of the world.
Tags: Science, Nature Genetics


A new 'atlas' of genetic influences on osteoporosis

A ground-breaking new study led by researchers from the Lady Davis Institute (LDI) at the Jewish General Hospital (JGH) has succeeded in compiling an atlas of genetic factors associated with estimated bone mineral density (BMD), one of the most clinically relevant factors in diagnosing osteoporosis. The paper, published in Nature Genetics, identifies 518 genome-wide loci, of which 301 are newly discovered, that explain 20 percent of the genetic variance associated with osteoporosis.
Tags: Science, Nature Genetics, Lady Davis Institute LDI, Jewish General Hospital JGH


ADHD risk is linked to many different genetic variants (ars technica)

Enlarge (credit: Wyss Institute, Harvard) If you have ADHD, chances are higher that your siblings do, too. Estimates differ as to how strong the connection is, but the arrows point in the same direction: genetics helps determine someone's risk for ADHD. Beyond that, we still have myriad questions and not many answers—which genes play a role? And how do those genes affect someone's ability to focus or sit still? Some conditions, like sickle-cell anemia, rest entirely on a single small genetic c...
Tags: News, Nature Genetics, Cathleen O'Grady, Wyss Institute Harvard


Large Genetic Study Finds First Genes Connected With ADHD

A paper published in Nature Genetics this week looked at genetic data from more than 50,000 people, finding 12 different regions of DNA that seemed to play a role in increasing ADHD risk. Ars Technica reports: This evidence comes from a genome-wide association study, or GWAS: a close look at how the DNA of people with ADHD differs from those without. Geneticist Ditte Demontis and her colleagues used data from more than 20,000 people with ADHD, comparing them to a control group of 35,000 people w...
Tags: Tech, Ars Technica, Nature Genetics, Ditte Demontis


First genetic map of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

An international study, focused on the analysis of the genome of more than 50,000 people worldwide, has identified twelve specific fragments of DNA related to the vulnerability of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study has been published in the journal Nature Genetics, involves more than eighty authors.
Tags: Nature Genetics


First genetic map of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

An international study, focused on the analysis of the genome of more than 50,000 people worldwide, has identified twelve specific fragments of DNA related to the vulnerability of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study has been published in the journal Nature Genetics, involves more than 80 authors.
Tags: Science, Nature Genetics


Largest parasitic worm genetic study hatches novel treatment possibilities

The largest genomic study of parasitic worms to date identified hundreds of thousands of new genes and predicted many new potential drug targets and drugs. Research from the Wellcome Sanger Institute and collaborators will help scientists understand how these parasites invade, evade the immune system and cause disease. Reported in Nature Genetics today (5th November), the study could lead to new de-worming treatments to help prevent and treat diseases caused by parasitic worms worldwide.
Tags: Nature Genetics, Wellcome Sanger Institute


Red Fox Genome Sheds Light on Domesticated Dogs (and Maybe Humans)

By Kevin E. Noonan -- The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been the subject of a controlled breeding experiment in Russia, at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, to select for genetic determinants associated with domestication (principally, friendliness towards human beings; see, Dugatkin and Trut, 2017, How to Tame a Fox (and Build a Dog), University of Chicago Press). The success of this program has provided a comparator for genetic experiments with convention...
Tags: Law, Russia, Nature Genetics, Patent Docs, Kevin E Noonan, Biotech/Pharma News, Red Fox Genome Sheds Light on Domesticated Dogs, Dugatkin, Dog University of Chicago Press


A new documentary chronicles the lives of triplets separated at birth in a controversial study — here's how scientists continue to use twins in research

The documentary "Three Identical Strangers" follows the story of a secret study conducted in three genetically identical siblings who were separated at birth.  The study was the only twin study that followed siblings from infancy. But due to controversies over ethics, the authors never published it and the data is sealed. Twin experiments can give scientists insights into how different habits, treatments, or lifestyles affect two people with the same genetic makeup. In other twin studies, rese...
Tags: Trends, Nasa, Earth, International Space Station, Yale, Npr, Twins, Scott Kelly, Nature Genetics, Smithsonian Magazine, Neubauer, Paula Bernstein, Family Research, Sullivan County Community College, Elyse Schein, Peter Neubauer


Scientists discover that genetics affects education outcomes

A new study has discovered more than 1,000 genetic variations that could predict educational outcomes, The Atlantic reported Monday, to nearly the same degree as household income or parental education. A years-long study, published by the journal Nature Genetics, analyzed the genes of about 1.1 million individuals, and found 1,271 education-associated genetic variants. While the study isn't as simple as locating "education genes" that can reliably predict how people will perform in the educat...
Tags: Science, Atlantic, Nature Genetics


Yale cancer researchers suggest new treatment for rare inherited cancers

Studying two rare inherited cancer syndromes, Yale Cancer Center (YCC) scientists have found the cancers are driven by a breakdown in how cells repair their DNA. The discovery, published today in Nature Genetics, suggests a promising strategy for treatment with drugs recently approved for other forms of cancer, said the researchers.
Tags: Yale, Nature Genetics, Yale Cancer Center YCC


A new documentary chronicles the lives of triplets separated at birth in a controversial study — here's how scientists continue to use twins in research

The documentary "Three Identical Strangers" follows the story of a secret study conducted in three genetically identical siblings who were separated at birth.  The study was the only twin study that followed siblings from infancy. But due to controversies over ethics, the authors never published it and the data is sealed. Twin experiments can give scientists insights into how different habits, treatments, or lifestyles affect two people with the same genetic makeup. In other twin studies, rese...
Tags: Trends, Nasa, Earth, International Space Station, Yale, Npr, Twins, Scott Kelly, Nature Genetics, Smithsonian Magazine, Neubauer, Paula Bernstein, Family Research, Sullivan County Community College, Elyse Schein, Peter Neubauer


Experimental Spit Test Could Identify Men Most At Risk of Prostate Cancer

An anonymous reader quotes a report from Gizmodo: A test developed by scientists in the U.K. and U.S. might someday be able to pinpoint the men most likely to get prostate cancer. A new study published Monday in Nature Genetics suggests the test can detect the one percent of men who are genetically most vulnerable to developing prostate cancer, a leading cause of cancer deaths among American men. The international research team used a new DNA analysis technique to peer into the genes of more tha...
Tags: Tech, Psa, Gizmodo, Nature Genetics


An Experimental Spit Test Could Identify Men Most at Risk of Prostate Cancer

A test developed by scientists in the UK and US might someday be able to pinpoint the men most likely to get prostate cancer. A new study published Monday in Nature Genetics suggests the test can detect the one percent of men who are genetically most vulnerable to developing prostate cancer, a leading cause of cancer…Read more...
Tags: UK, Science, Cancer, US, Prostate Cancer, Genetics, DNA testing, Nature Genetics


Researchers identify new gene changes that point to elevated prostate cancer risk

Fredrick R. Schumacher, PhD, a cancer epidemiology researcher at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and an international team of more than 100 colleagues have identified 63 new genetic variations that could indicate higher risk of prostate cancer in men of European descent. The findings, published in a research letter in Nature Genetics, contain significant implications for which men may need to be regularly screened because of higher genetic risk of prostate cancer.
Tags: Science, Nature Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Fredrick R Schumacher


Researchers recreate 200-year-old man’s genome using only DNA from his living relatives

Hans Jonatan was born in St. Croix more than 200 years ago in 1784. His mother Emilia Regina was a house slave on the island, which means Jonatan was born into slavery.  He would later manage to free himself by escaping to Iceland, where he would marry a local woman and raise a family before dying in 1827 at the age of 43. There are no known photographs of Jonatan, but he gained notoriety when his life story was told in a book called The Man Who Stole Himself. But Jonatan once again finds himsel...
Tags: Science, Cameroon, Iceland, Caribbean, St Croix, Nature Genetics, Benin Nigeria, Jonatan, Hans Jonatan, Emilia Regina, Hans Jonatan HJ


Study finds genetic variations linked to BMI and obesity risk

It's not just diet and physical activity; your genes also determine how easily you lose or gain weight. In a study published in the January issue of Nature Genetics, researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and other institutions of the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits consortium found 13 genes that carry variations associated with body mass index.
Tags: Health, Mount Sinai, Nature Genetics, Icahn School of Medicine, Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits


UCI scientists identify hidden genetic variation that helps drive evolution

Identifying complex mutations in the structure of an organism's genome has been difficult. But in a new study published online in Nature Genetics, a research team led by J.J. Emerson, assistant professor of ecology & evolutionary biology at the Ayala School of Biological Sciences, applies new methods of genome analysis to identify these complex mutations with unprecedented resolution.
Tags: Science, UCI, Nature Genetics, J J Emerson, Ayala School of Biological Sciences


UCI Scientists Identify Hidden Genetic Variation That Helps Drive Evolution

Identifying complex mutations in the structure of an organism's genome has been difficult. But in a new study published online in Nature Genetics, a research team led by J.J. Emerson, assistant professor of ecology & evolutionary biology at the Ayala School of Biological Sciences, applies new methods of genome analysis to identify these complex mutations with unprecedented resolution.
Tags: Science, UCI, Nature Genetics, J J Emerson, Ayala School of Biological Sciences


There's new evidence of how our DNA shapes depression and other disorders like it

Scientists are uncovering promising links between specific parts of our DNA and a range of disorders such as anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. As with any disease, having certain genes or mutations in those genes doesn't mean you'll go on to develop the disorders, but it may play a key role. The research also helps highlight the biological underpinnings of mental illness, something that could help with the development of better treatments.   When you fall and break a bo...
Tags: Trends, Harvard University, OCD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Broad Institute of MIT, Nature Communications, Nature Genetics, Karlsson, Broad Institute, University of Massachusetts, The Lancet, Nôh, Perlis, Roy Perlis, Center for Experimental Drugs and Diagnostics, Elinor Karlsson


We're learning more and more about how our DNA shapes depression and other disorders like it

Scientists are uncovering promising links between specific parts of our DNA and a range of disorders such as anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. As with any disease, having certain genes or mutations in those genes doesn't mean you'll go on to develop the disorders, but it may play a key role. The research also helps highlight the biological underpinnings of mental illness, something that could help with the development of better treatments.   When you fall and break a bo...
Tags: US, Trends, Harvard University, OCD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Broad Institute of MIT, Nature Communications, Nature Genetics, Karlsson, Broad Institute, University of Massachusetts, The Lancet, Nôh, Perlis, Roy Perlis, Center for Experimental Drugs and Diagnostics


New congenital heart disease genes uncovered

A new study from the NHLBI Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium (PGCG), part of the Bench to Bassinet Program, has helped shed new light on some of the underlying genetic causes of cases of CHD as well as the long-term outlook for patients who carry these mutations. The team, led by researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital, publishes its latest findings in Nature Genetics this week.
Tags: Science, Nature Genetics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, NHLBI Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium, Bassinet Program


Repetitive elements shape embryonic chromatin landscape

Retrotransposons are repetitive elements that form almost half of the mammalian genome. Even though they are so common, they have previously been considered to be fairly insignificant. Together with colleagues from the USA, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum München have now shown in Nature Genetics that retrotransposons play an important role in embryonic development.
Tags: Usa, Science, Nature Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München


Penn biologists show how plants turn off genes they don't need

New research led by University of Pennsylvania biologists and published this week in the journal Nature Genetics has identified small sequences in plant DNA that act as signposts for shutting off gene activity, directing the placement of proteins that silence gene expression.
Tags: Science, University of Pennsylvania, Penn, Nature Genetics


Silver Birch Genetics Explained

By Kevin E. Noonan -- A recent report in the scientific journal Nature Genetics 49: 904–12 (May 2017), doi:10.1038/ng.3862, disclosed the results of genomic DNA sequencing and analysis of Betula pendula, the silver birch tree. The report, entitled "Genome sequencing and population genomic analyses provide insights into the adaptive landscape of silver birch," was the result of a multinational effort* indicative of the importance of this species. B. pendula is a "pioneer boreal tree," and boreal ...
Tags: Law, Nature Genetics, Patent Docs, Betula, Kevin E Noonan, Biotech/Pharma News, Birch Genetics Explained


Trilobites: They Were Shorter and at Risk for Arthritis, but They Survived an Ice Age

A genetic mutation that knocks a centimeter off height and increases the risk for arthritis may have helped early humans in Europe and Asia to survive, a new study shows.
Tags: Asia, Europe, News, David, Kingsley, Nature Genetics, Genetics and Heredity, Arthritis, Evolution (Biology, Height (Stature


Finding a new major gene expression regulator in fungi

Changing a single letter, or base, in an organism's genetic code impact its traits. Subtler changes can and do happen: in eukaryotes, one such modification involves adding a methyl group to base 6 of adenine (6mA). In Nature Genetics, researchers report the prevalence of 6mA modifications in the earliest branches of the fungal kingdom. This little-explored realm provides a repertoire of important and valuable gene products for DOE missions in bioenergy and environment.
Tags: Science, Nature Genetics


Scientists drew a riveting conclusion after looking at the DNA of thousands of people with depression

It's the leading disability worldwide and it can kill. Yet for decades, scientists have known surprisingly little about what genes are linked with the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A recent study aims to change that. In their paper, published in August 2016 in the journal Nature Genetics, a team of scientists pinpointed 17 genetic tweaks, or SNPs (pronounced "snips"), that appear to be tied to MDD. The researchers combed through a trove of genetic data from thousands of people ...
Tags: Trends, Harvard, Nature, Fda, Anne Wojcicki, Massachusetts General Hospital, Nature Genetics, University of California Los Angeles, The Lancet, MDD, Neil de Grasse Tyson, Perlis, Betsy DeVos, Roy Perlis, Psychiatric Genetics Program, Jonathan Flint